• Special Pages
• User

Help

# Summary of B Syntax: Difference between revisions

## Summary of B Syntax

### Logical predicates:

``` P & Q       conjunction
P or Q      disjunction
P => Q      implication
P <=> Q     equivalence
not P       negation
!(x).(P=>Q) universal quantification
#(x).(P&Q)  existential quantification
```

Above, P and Q stand for predicates. Inside the universal quantification, P must give a value type to the quantified variable. Note: you can also introduce multiple variables inside a universal or existential quantification, e.g., !(x,y).(P => Q).

### Equality:

``` E = F      equality
E /= F     disequality
```

### Booleans:

``` TRUE
FALSE
BOOL        set of boolean values ({TRUE,FALSE})
bool(P)     convert predicate into BOOL value
```

Warning: TRUE and FALSE are values and not predicates in B and cannot be combined using logical connectives. To combine two boolean values x and y using conjunction you have to write x=TRUE & y=TRUE. To convert a predicate such as z>0 into a boolean value you have to use bool(z>0).

### Sets:

``` {}          empty set
{E}         singleton set
{E,F}       set enumeration
{x|P}       comprehension set
POW(S)      power set
POW1(S)     set of non-empty subsets
FIN(S)      set of all finite subsets
FIN1(S)     set of all non-empty finite subsets
card(S)     cardinality
S*T         cartesian product
S\/T        set union
S/\T        set intersection
S-T         set difference
E:S         element of
E/:S        not element of
S<:T        subset of
S/<:T       not subset of
S<<:T       strict subset of
S/<<:T      not strict subset of
union(S)        generalised union over sets of sets
inter(S)         generalised intersection over sets of sets
UNION(z).(P|E)  generalised union with predicate
INTER(z).(P|E)  generalised intersection with predicate
```

### Numbers:

``` INTEGER     set of integers
NATURAL     set of natural numbers
NATURAL1    set of non-zero natural numbers
INT         set of implementable integers (MININT..MAXINT)
NAT         set of implementable natural numbers
NAT1        set of non-zero implementable natural numbers
n..m        set of numbers from n to m
MININT      the minimum implementable integer
MAXINT      the maximum implementable integer
m>n         greater than
m<n         less than
m>=n        greater than or equal
m<=n        less than or equal
max(S)      maximum of a set of numbers
min(S)      minimum of a set of numbers
m-n         difference
m*n         multiplication
m/n         division
m**n        power
m mod n     remainder of division
PI(z).(P|E)    Set product
SIGMA(z).(P|E) Set summation
succ(n)     successor (n+1)
pred(n)     predecessor (n-1)
0xH         hexadecimal literal, where H is a sequence of letters in [0-9A-Fa-f]
```

### Relations:

``` S<->T     relation
S<<->T    total relation
S<->>T    surjective relation
S<<->>T   total surjective relation
E|->F     maplet
dom(r)    domain of relation
ran(r)    range of relation
id(S)     identity relation
S<|r      domain restriction
S<<|r     domain subtraction
r|>S      range restriction
r|>>S     range subtraction
r~        inverse of relation
r[S]      relational image
r1<+r2    relational overriding (r2 overrides r1)
r1><r2    direct product {x,(y,z) | x,y:r1 & x,z:r2}
(r1;r2)     relational composition {x,y| x|->z:r1 & z|->y:r2}
(r1||r2)    parallel product {((x,v),(y,w)) | x,y:r1 & v,w:r2}
prj1(S,T)     projection function (usage prj1(Dom,Ran)(Pair))
prj2(S,T)     projection function (usage prj2(Dom,Ran)(Pair))
closure1(r)   transitive closure
closure(r)    reflexive & transitive closure
(non-standard version: closure({}) = {}; see iterate(r,0) below)
iterate(r,n)  iteration of r with n>=0
(Note: iterate(r,0) = id(s) where s = dom(r)\/ran(r))
fnc(r)    translate relation A<->B into function A+->POW(B)
rel(r)    translate relation A<->POW(B) into relation A<->B
```

### Functions:

```  S+->T      partial function
S-->T      total function
S+->>T     partial surjection
S-->>T     total surjection
S>+>T      partial injection
S>->T      total injection
S>+>>T     partial bijection
S>->>T     total bijection
%x.(P|E)   lambda abstraction
f(E)       function application
f(E1,...,En)   is now supported (as well as f(E1|->E2))
```

### Sequences:

```  <> or []   empty sequence
[E]        singleton sequence
[E,F]      constructed sequence
seq(S)     set of sequences over Sequence
seq1(S)    set of non-empty sequences over S
iseq(S)    set of injective sequences
iseq1(S)   set of non-empty injective sequences
perm(S)    set of bijective sequences (permutations)
size(s)    size of sequence
s^t        concatenation
E->s       prepend element
s<-E       append element
rev(s)     reverse of sequence
first(s)   first element
last(s)    last element
front(s)   front of sequence (all but last element)
tail(s)    tail of sequence (all but first element)
conc(S)    concatenation of sequence of sequences
s/|\n     take first n elements of sequence
s\|/n     drop first n elements from sequence
```

### Records:

```  struct(ID:S,...,ID:S)   set of records with given fields and field types
rec(ID:E,...,ID:E)      construct a record with given field names and values
E'ID                    get value of field with name ID
```

### Strings:

```  "astring"     a specific (single-line) string value
'''astring''' an alternate way of writing (multi-line) strings, no need to escape "
STRING        the set of all strings
Note: for the moment enumeration of strings is limited (if a variable
of type STRING is not given a value by the machine, then ProB assumes
STRING = { "STR1", "STR2" })
```

Atelier-B does not support any operations on strings, apart from equality and disequality. However, the ProB external function library contains several operators on strings. ProB also allows multi-line strings. As of version 1.7.0, ProB will support the following escape sequences within strings:

```\n   newline (ASCII character 13)
\r   carriage return (ASCII 10)
\t  tab (ASCII 9)
\"   the double quote symbol "
\'   the single quote symbol '
\\   the backslash symbol
```

Within single-line string literals, you do not need to escape '. Within multi-line string literals, you do not need to escape " and you can use tabs and newlines. ProB assumes that all B machines and strings use the UTF-8 encoding.

The library LibraryStrings.def in stdlib contains additional useful external functions (like TO_STRING, STRING_SPLIT, FORMAT_TO_STRING, INT_TO_HEX_STRING, ...). Some of the sequence operators work also on strings:

```  size(s)     the length of a string s
rev(s)      the reverse a string s
s ^ t       the concatenation of two strings
conc(ss)    the concatenation of a sequence of strings
```

You can turn this support off using the STRING_AS_SEQUENCE preference.

### Reals:

``` REAL        set of reals
FLOAT       set of floating point numbers
i.f         real literal, where i and f are sequences of digits
real(n)     convert an integer n into a real number
floor(r)    convert a real r to an integer
ceiling(r)  convert a real r to an integer
```

Standard arithmetic operators can be applied to reals: +, - , *, /, SIGMA, PI. Exponentiation of a real with an integer is also allowed. The comparison predicates =, /=, <, >, <=, >= also all work. Support for reals and floats is experimental. The definition in Atelier-B is also not stable yet. Currently ProB supports floating point numbers only. Warning: properties such as associativity and commutativity of arithmetic operators thus does not hold. The library LibraryReals.def in stdlib contains additional useful external functions (like RSIN, RCOS, RLOG, RSQRT, RPOW, ...). You can turn off support for REALS using the preference ALLOW_REALS.

### Trees:

Nodes in the tree are denoted by index sequences (branches), e.g, n=[1,2,1] Each node in the tree is labelled with an element from a domain S A tree is a function mapping of branches to elements of the domain S.

```  tree(S)      set of trees over domain S
btree(S)     set of binary trees over domain S
top(t)       top of a tree
const(E,s)   construct a tree from info E and sequence of subtrees s
rank(t,n)    rank of the node at end of branch n in the tree t
father(t,n)  father of the node denoted by branch n in the tree t
son(t,n,i)   the ith son of the node denoted by branch n in tree t
sons(t)      the sequence of sons of the root of the tree t
subtree(t,n)
arity(t,n)
bin(E)       construct a binary tree with a single node E
bin(tl,E,tr) construct a binary tree with root info E and subtrees tl,tr
left(t)      the left (first) son of the root of the binary tree t
right(t)     the right (last) son of the root of the binary tree t
sizet(t)     the size of the tree (number of nodes)
prefix(t)    the nodes of the tree t in prefix order
postfix(t)    the nodes of the tree t in prefix order
mirror, infix are recognised by the parser but not yet supported by ProB itself
```

### LET and IF-THEN-ELSE

ProB allows the following for predicates and expressions:

```   IF P THEN E1 ELSE E2 END              conditional for expressions or predicates E1,E2
LET x1,... BE x1=E1 & ... IN E END
```

Note: the expressions E1,... defining x1,... are not allowed to use x1,...

### Statements (aka Substitutions):

```  skip         no operation
x := E       assignment
f(x) := E    functional override
x :: S       choice from set
x : (P)      choice by predicate P (constraining x)
x <-- OP(x)  call operation and assign return value
G||H         parallel substitution**
G;H          sequential composition**
ANY x,... WHERE P THEN G END   non deterministic choice
LET x,... BE x=E & ... IN G END
VAR x,... IN G END             generate local variables
PRE P THEN G END
ASSERT P THEN G END
CHOICE G OR H END
IF P THEN G END
IF P THEN G ELSE H END
IF P1 THEN G1 ELSIF P2 THEN G2 ... END
IF P1 THEN G1 ELSIF P2 THEN G2 ... ELSE Gn END
SELECT P THEN G WHEN ... WHEN Q THEN H END
SELECT P THEN G WHEN ... WHEN Q THEN H ELSE I END
CASE E OF EITHER m THEN G OR n THEN H ... END END
CASE E OF EITHER m THEN G OR n THEN H ... ELSE I END END

WHEN P THEN G END  is a synonym for SELECT P THEN G END

**: cannot be used at the top-level of an operation, but needs to
be wrapped inside a BEGIN END or another statement (to avoid
problems with the operators ; and ||).
```

```  MACHINE or REFINEMENT or IMPLEMENTATION

Note: machine parameters can either be SETS (if identifier is all upper-case)
or scalars (i.e., integer, boolean or SET element; if identifier is not
all upper-case; typing must be provided be CONSTRAINTS)
You can also use MODEL or SYSTEM as a synonym for MACHINE, as well
as EVENTS as a synonym for OPERATIONS.
ProB also supports the ref keyword of Atelier-B for event refinement.
```

### Machine sections:

```  CONSTRAINTS         P      (logical predicate)
SETS                S;T={e1,e2,...};...
CONSTANTS           x,y,...
CONCRETE_CONSTANTS cx,cy,...
PROPERTIES         P       (logical predicate)
DEFINITIONS        m(x,...) == BODY;....
VARIABLES          x,y,...
CONCRETE_VARIABLES cv,cw,...
INVARIANT          P       (logical predicate)
ASSERTIONS         P;...;P (list of logical predicates separated by ;)
INITIALISATION
OPERATIONS
```

### Machine inclusion:

```  USES list of machines
INCLUDES list of machines
SEES list of machines
EXTENDS list of machines
PROMOTES list of operations
REFINES machine
```

Note: Refinement machines should express the operation preconditions in terms of their own variables.

### Definitions:

```  NAME1 == Expression;          Definition without arguments
NAME2(ID,...,ID) == E2;       Definition with arguments
```
``` "FILE.def";                   Include definitions from file
```

There are a few Definitions which can be used to influence the animator:

```There are a few specific definitions which can be used to influence ProB:
GOAL == P                to define a custom Goal predicate for Model Checking
(the Goal is also set by using "Advanced Find...")
SCOPE == P               to limit the search space to "interesting" nodes
scope_SETNAME == n..n    to define custom cardinality for set SETNAME
scope_SETNAME == n       equivalent to 1..n
SET_PREF_MININT == n
SET_PREF_MAXINT == n
SET_PREF_MAX_INITIALISATIONS == n  max. number of intialisations computed
SET_PREF_MAX_OPERATIONS == n       max. number of enablings per operation computed
SET_PREF_SYMBOLIC == TRUE/FALSE
SET_PREF_TIME_OUT == n             time out for operation computation in ms
ASSERT_LTL... == "LTL Formula"  	using X,F,G,U,R LTL operators +
Y,O,H,S Past-LTL operators +
atomic propositions: e(OpName), [OpName], {BPredicate}
```

The following definitions allow providing a custom state visualization:

```  ANIMATION_FUNCTIONn == e           a function (INT*INT) +-> INT or an INT
ANIMATION_FUNCTION_DEFAULT == e    a function (INT*INT) +-> INT or an INT
instead of any INT above you can also use BOOL or any SET
as a result you can also use STRING values,
or even other values which are pretty printed
ANIMATION_IMGn == "PATH to .gif"   a path to a gif file
ANIMATION_STRn == "sometext"       a string without spaces;
the result integer n will be rendered as a string
ANIMATION_STR_JUSTIFY_LEFT == TRUE computes the longest string in the outputs and pads
the other strings accordingly
```

The following definitions allow providing a custom state graph:

```  CUSTOM_GRAPH_NODESn == e    define a set of nodes to be shown,
nodes can also be pairs (Node,Colour), triples (Node,Shape,Colour) or
records rec(color:Colour, shape:Shape, style:Style, label:Label, value:Node)
Colours are strings of valid Dot/Tk colors (e.g., "maroon" or "red")
Shapes are strings of valid Dot shapes (e.g., "rect" or "hexagon"), and
Styles are valid Dot shape styles (e.g., "rounded" or "solid" or "dashed")
CUSTOM_GRAPH_EDGESn == e    define a relation to be shown as a graph
edges can either be pairs (node1,node2) or triples (node1,Label,node2)
where Label is either a Dot/Tk color or a string or value representing
the label to be used for the edges
```
``` In both cases e can also be a record which defines default dot attributes like
color, shape, style and description, e.g.:
```
```     CUSTOM_GRAPH_NODES == rec(color:"blue", shape:"rect", nodes:e);
CUSTOM_GRAPH_EDGES == rec(color:"red", style:"dotted", edges:e)
```

These DEFINITIONS affect VisB:

```  VISB_JSON_FILE == "PATH to .json"  a path to a default VisB JSON file for visualisation;
if it is "" an empty SVG will be created
VISB_SVG_OBJECTSn == define a record or set of records for creating new SVG objects
VISB_SVG_UPDATESn == define a record or set of records containing updates of SVG objects
VISB_SVG_HOVERSn == define a record or set of records for VisB hover functions
VISB_SVG_BOX == record with dimensions (height, width) of a default empty SVG
VISB_SVG_CONTENTS == defines a string to be included into a created empty SVG file
```

```B supports two styles of comments:
```

ProB recognises several pragma comments of the form /*@ PRAGMA VALUE */ The whitespace between @ and PRAGMA is optional.

```  /*@symbolic */      put before comprehension set or lambda to instruct ProB
to keep it symbolic and not try to compute it explicitly
/*@label LBL */     associates a label LBL with the following predicate
(LBL must be identifier or a string "....")
/*@desc DESC */     associates a description DESC with the preceding predicate or
introduced identifier (in VARIABLES, CONSTANTS,... section)
There are two special descriptions
/*@desc memo*/ to be put after identifiers in the ABSTRACT_CONSTANTS section
indicating that these functions should be memoized
/*@desc prob-ignore */ to be put after predicates (e.g., in PROPERTIES) which
should be ignored by ProB
when the preference USE_IGNORE_PRAGMAS is TRUE
/*@file PATH */     associates a file for machines in SEES, INCLUDES, ...
put pragma after a seen or included machine
/*@package NAME */  at start of machine, machine file should be in folder NAME/...
NAME can be qualified N1.N2...Nk, in which case the machine
file should be in N1/N2/.../Nk
/*@import-package NAME */  adds ../NAME to search paths for SEES,...
NAME can also be qualified N1.N2...Nk, use after package pragma
/*@generated */     can be put at the top of a machine file; indicates the machine
is generated from some other source and should not be edited
```

### File Extensions

```   .mch   for abstract machine files
.ref   for refinement machines
.imp   for implementation machines
.def   for DEFINITIONS files
.rmch  for Rules machines for data validation
```

### Differences with AtelierB/B4Free

Basically, ProB tries to be compatible with Atelier B and conforms to the semantics of Abrial's B-Book and of Atelier B's reference manual. Here are the main differences with Atelier B:

```  - tuples without parentheses are not supported; write (a,b,c) instead of a,b,c
- relational composition has to be wrapped into parentheses; write (f;g)
- parallel product also has to be wrapped into parentheses; write (f||g)
- not all tree operators are supported
- the VALUES clause is only partially supported
- definitions have to be syntactically correct and be either an expression,
predicate or substitution;
the arguments to definitions have to be expressions;
definitions which are predicates or substitutions must be declared before first use
- definitions are local to a machine
- for ProB the order of fields in a record is not relevant (internally the fields are
sorted), Atelier-B reports a type error if the order of the name of the fields changes
- well-definedness: for disjunctions and implications ProB uses the L-system
of well-definedness (i.e., for P => Q, P should be well-defined and
if P is true then Q should also be well-defined)
- ProB allows WHILE loops and sequential composition in abstract machines
- ProB now allows the IF-THEN-ELSE and LET for expressions and predicates
(e.g., IF x<0 THEN -x ELSE x END or LET x BE x=f(y) IN x+x END)
- ProB's type inference is stronger than Atelier-B's, much less typing predicates
are required
- ProB accepts operations with parameters but without pre-conditions
- ProB allows identifiers consisting of a single character and identifiers in single backquotes (`id`)
- ProB allows to use <> for the empty sequence (but this use is deprecated)
- ProB allows escape codes (\n, \', \", see above) and supports UTF-8 characters in strings,
and ProB allows multi-line string literals written using three apostrophes ('''string''')
- ProB allows a she-bang line in machine files starting with #!
(If you discover more differences, please let us know!)
- ProB allows btrue and bfalse as predicates in B machines
- ProB allows to use the Event-B relation operators <<->, <->>, <<->>
```

Also note that there are various differences between BToolkit and AtelierB/ProB:

``` - AtelierB/ProB do not allow true as predicate;
e.g., PRE true THEN ... END is not allowed (use BEGIN ... END instead), ProB allows btrue as predicate.
- AtelierB/ProB do not allow a machine parameter to be used in the PROPERTIES
- AtelierB/ProB require a scalar machine parameter to be typed in the
CONSTRAINTS clause
- In AtelierB/ProB the BOOL type is pre-defined and cannot be redefined
```

### Other notes

``` ProB is best at treating universally quantified formulas of the form
!x.(x:SET => RHS), or
!(x,y).(x|->y:SET =>RHS), !(x,y,z).(x|->y|->z:SET =>RHS), ...;
otherwise the treatment of !(x1,...,xn).(LHS => RHS) may delay until all values
treated by LHS are known.
Similarly, expressions of the form SIGMA(x).(x:SET|Expr) and PI(x).(x:SET|Expr)